Hoy en la Historia de Filipinas: proclamación de la soberanía estadounidense sobre Filipinas

HOY EN LA HISTORIA DE FILIPINAS: 4 de enero de 1899 — El General Elwell S. Otis, el segundo Gobernador Militar estadounidense de Filipinas, proclama en nombre del Presidente William McKinley la soberanía de Estados Unidos sobre el archipiélago filipino.

Antes de esto, el 21 de diciembre de 1898, el Presidente McKinley ya emitió su infame Proclamación de Asimilación Benévola. Pero el General Otis demoró la publicación de su proclamación hasta el 4 de enero de 1899, y luego publicó una versión editada para no transmitir a los filipinos los significados de los términos “soberanía”, “protección”, y “derecho de cesación”, que estaban presentes en la versión íntegra.

El General Otis también envió una copia inalterada de la proclamación al General Marcus Miller en la Ciudad de Iloílo quien, sin saber que una versión alterada había sido enviada a Emilio Aguinaldo (entonces presidente del gobierno revolucionario filipino), le pasó una copia a un funcionario filipino allí. La versión inalterada finalmente llegó a Aguinaldo.

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Imagen: Full Circle.

Office of the Military Governor
of the Philippine Islands
Manila, P.I.
4 January 1899

To the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands.

The instructions issued by his Excellency the President of the United States relative to the administration of the Philippine Islands have been transmitted to me on December twenty-eight of last year 1898 through the Secretary of War. Through these instructions I have been ordered to publicly announce, and I proclaimed to the inhabitants of these islands that in the war with Spain, the United States Army came here in order to destroy the power of that nation and to grant the benefits of peace and freedom to each individual Filipino; that we are here as friends of the Filipinos, to protect them in their homes, in their occupations and their individual religious freedom, that every person who materially assist or honorably cooperate with the United States government in order to effectively achieve those wholesome plans, will receive the recompense of her support and protection.

The President of the United States has admitted that the municipal laws of this country, as far as they respect the rights of the individual and the rights for property and the repression of guilt, will be considered still in vigor so long as they can be applied to a free people, and they must be administered by the ordinary courts of justice, presided by the representatives of the people and by those persons who are in complete accord with it in their desire for good government; that the functions and duties related to civil and municipal administration shall reside and shall be exercised by these functionaries who like to accept the assistance of the United States, elected, as far as it is workable, from among the inhabitants of the islands; that in the meantime that the management of public property and revenue and the use of public transport shall be carried out under direction of the military authorities until such time that it can be substituted by civilian administrators, all properties owned by individual persons or corporations shall be respected and duly protected, whenever property owned by individual person is to be used for military purposes, its value shall be paid in money; if monetary payment is not possible at the moment, corresponding receipts shall be issued and they shall be liquidated and satisfaction shall be made whenever there are available funds. The ports of the Philippines shall be open to commerce, of all foreign countries and the goods and merchandise, the entry of which is not prohibited by the military authorities for special reasons, shall be admitted by means of payment of dues and tariffs in vigor at the time of its importation. The President ends his instructions with the following words:

And lastly the Administration’s supreme and true aspiration must be to gain the trust, respect and affection of the inhabitants of the Philippines, and as much as possible, they should be given a complete guarantee of individual rights, and of freedom which is the patrimony of a free people. They should show in act, that the mission of the United States is one of beneficent assimilation which will see to it that arbitrary power is substituted by an indulgent government of justice and reason.

In complying with this sublime Mission and at the same time maintaining the temporal administration of matters, the strong arm of the authorities shall be prepared to repress disorder and to overcome all obstacles that may come across the way of a good and stable government over the inhabitants of the Philippine islands.

Judging from the text of the foregoing instructions of the President, I believe that the intention of the United States government is to provide general direction about certain matters, and to appoint the representatives that now form the directorship composed of Filipinos in order for them to occupy position of responsibility and confidence properly reserved for civilians, and it is my duty to appoint to those positions Filipinos who might deserve the approval of higher authorities in Washington. I likewise believe that it is the intention of the United States to recruit from among the Filipino military forces from the islands whenever possible and those who are in harmony with a free and well-constituted government, and it is my desire to inaugurate this kind of policy. Similarly, I am convinced that the United States government intends to try to establish a most liberal government over these islands, wherein the people itself will have all possible representation with regard to the maintenance of law and that it will be susceptible to development in the area of increasing the representation, to granting of greater powers to a government which is free and independent, similar to this which are being enjoyed by the ore favored provinces of the world.

It will be my constant effort, that of cooperating with the Filipino people, so that they might be able to look after the welfare of their country, and I beg your complete confidence and support.

E. S. OTIS

Major General of the volunteers of
the United States Military Governor

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Hoy en la Historia de Filipinas: inauguración del banco central de Filipinas

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Foto: Rappler.

HOY EN LA HISTORIA DE FILIPINAS: 3 de enero de 1949 — El banco central de Filipinas se inauguró formalmente como Central Bank of the Philippines con Miguel Cuaderno (Padre) como su primer gobernador. Los principales deberes y responsabilidades del banco central eran promover el desarrollo económico y mantener la estabilidad monetaria interna y externa.

Muchos años después, el Presidente Fidel V. Ramos firmó el Republic Act (Ley de la República) Nº 7653, también conocida como el New Central Bank Act (Nueva Ley del Banco Central), el 14 de junio de 1993. Estaba en conformidad con una disposición de la Constitución de 1987. Dicha ley prevé el establecimiento de una autoridad monetaria independiente que se conocerá como Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) —también el nuevo nombre tagalizado del Central Bank of the Philippines cuyo objetivo principal es el mantenimiento de la estabilidad de precios. Este objetivo sólo estaba implícito en la antigua carta del banco central. La ley también otorga al BSP una autonomía fiscal y administrativa que el antiguo banco central no tenía. El 3 de julio de 1993 entró en vigencia la nueva ley del banco central.

La sede del BSP se encuentra en Malate, Manila.

Hoy en la Historia de Filipinas: Japón entra en Manila

HOY EN LA HISTORIA DE FILIPINAS: 2 de enero de 1942 — Japón ocupa Manila después de un asedio de un mes.

Anterior a eso, debe recordarse que Japón lanzó un ataque contra Filipinas el 9 de diciembre de 1941, sólo diez horas después de su ataque a Pearl Harbor. El bombardeo aéreo inicial fue seguido por aterrizajes de tropas terrestres al norte y al sur de Manila. Las tropas defensores filipinos y estadounidenses estaban bajo el mando del General Douglas MacArthur, quien había sido llamado al servicio activo en el ejército de los Estados Unidos de América a principios de año y fue designado comandante de las Fuerzas Armadas de los Estados Unidos en la región de Asia y el Pacífico.

Los aviones bajo el mando del General MacArthur fueron destruidos; se ordenó a las fuerzas navales que se fueran; y debido a las circunstancias en la región del Pacífico, el refuerzo y el reabastecimiento de sus fuerzas terrestres eran imposibles. Se ordenó a los soldados estadounidenses que se retiraran de Manila, y todas las instalaciones militares se retiraron el 24 de diciembre de 1941. Dos días después, declaró a Manila una ciudad abierta para evitar más muertes y destrucción, pero los aviones de combate japoneses continuaron bombardeando.

La imagen puede contener: una o varias personas, personas caminando, cancha de básquet y exterior

Foto: Timetoast.

Manila fue ocupada por las fuerzas japonesas el 2 de enero de 1942. Bajo la presión de un número superior, las fuerzas defensoras se retiraron a la península de Bataán y a la Isla de Corregidor en la entrada a la Bahía de Manila. Con la caída de Bataán el 9 de abril y Corregidor el 6 de mayo, Filipinas fue completamente ocupada por Japón.

La imagen puede contener: una o varias personas, personas sentadas y exterior

Tanques ligeros japoneses avanzando sobre Manila el 2 de enero de 1942 (foto: US Army Center of Military History).

A year after

Exactly a year ago, I was hospitalized due to tuberculosis (TB). It was the third time I suffered from the disease: the first was as a toddler (for kids, they call it primary complex); the second was a few weeks before college graduation. I wasn’t admitted for the first two. Medications did them in. But the third was the most frightening: I was coughing up too much blood I thought I was the victim in some slasher film.

A few days prior to that, we really thought that I was going to die because no hospital would admit us: no pulmonologist was available because of Christmas break. The medications prescribed by a clinic didn’t suffice as they didn’t deter the bleeding (I started coughing up blood before Christmas Eve). I was weakening up so fast, and the burning night fevers were numbing.

Finally, I was admitted in a hospital in Alabang. I thought that I only had TB. But when the doctor read out to me the findings, I was shocked when I was told that I also had pneumonia. Two killers were murdering my already weakened lungs. And there was already a hole in my right lung. But there was no pain, only severe weakness and high fever. I just wanted to drift off, do nothing, and watch the ceiling from my sick bed. What really frightened me were the surgical needles. I contracted trypanophobia ever since my bout against dengue when I was in Grade II. It was embarrassing each time I had to face nurses who were out to get my blood sample, or who regularly had to apply intravenous medication. There was one time when my visitors had to restrain me while a nurse was getting my blood sample. Arnaldo witnessed it and was having a good laugh at the way I squirmed and shook and cried like a sicko strapped a straitjacket. 😝

ASIAN HOSPITAL

A view of my room. The only view that I had of the outside world for two lonely weeks.

I thought my hospitalization would last for only a few days, and that I’d get to celebrate New Year’s Eve with my family. I was mistaken. I celebrated New Year’s Eve alone. My wife had wanted to accompany me, but I said she had to be with our children. Nothing should spoil the little ones’ Christmas feasts.

Even after the Christmas revelry I was not given an exact date on when my release would be because they were still monitoring the severity of my TB, i.e., if the bacteria were resistant against the medications given to me. I prayed and prayed for my immediate release. Finally, I was given a clean bill of health on January 9, or thirteen days later, on the Feast of the Black Nazarene of which I am a devotee. Me and my wife attended afterwards to give thanks, even when still weakened. I had not missed a single traslación ever since becoming a devotee in 2011.

PEPE ALAS.jpg

The closest I could get to the Black Nazarene of Quiapò. And the first time I didn’t get to touch the ropes pulling its carriage due to weakness from two weeks of hospitalization. I almost fainted here because of the crowd. This was also my wife’s first time to join the procession.

How does one contract TB? From what I have gathered, almost everyone has TB bacteria. Healthy people are unaffected. But once the immune system has weakened, that’s how TB bacteria start to affect the lungs. My immune system weakened due to lack of sleep and missed meals. That is why after my third bout with TB, I took it easy. I haven’t been reading and writing that much since. I stopped blogging for several months (resuming only in June). It’s difficult continuing to do so anyway, considering the sad fact that I’m a nocturnal corporate slave commuting several kilometers nightly on polluted highways.

TB may no longer be as deadly as it was nowadays compared to a few decades before (some of its most famous Filipino victims were Graciano López Jaena, Marcelo del Pilar, José María Pañganiban, and Manuel L. Quezon; Rizal almost had it, but survived). But it is deadlier the third time around, especially when it has an accomplice (pneumonia) to assist it in its hushed killing spree.

And it’s a real pain in the pockets because of the six-month medication. The following people, however, made it easy for us to survive the ensuing months: thank you so much to Gemma Cruz Araneta, former Mayor Calixto Catáquiz, Mama Beth Córsega and her daughter Jonafel, Señor Guillermo GómezNonia Tiongco, my mother-in-law, and my dad. Special thanks to Ate Christina Capacete and Riah Ramírez (Chief Nurse, City of San Pedro) for assisting my wife on the treatment side of things.

Now, because I live in a place where the air is polluted, I could no longer afford to go out of our apartment without wearing a face mask. And I usually experience shortness of breath whenever I do strenuous physical activities. I long for the day when I get to live in a place surrounded by nature, where it’s safe for my lungs.

Thank you to all those who prayed and showed concern for me during my fight against tuberculosis and pneumonia. May God bless you all!

 

Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe y la fe filipina

En 2017 asistí una Santa Misa en el Santuario Nacional de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe en San Pedro Macati (nombre original de la Ciudad de Makati) en celebración de la fiesta de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe. Durante la Misa que fue celebrada por Cardenal Gaudencio Rosales, de repente tuve una comprensión: me di cuenta de que cada vez que practico mi fe católica, doy esplendor a mi identidad filipina, y cada vez que profeso mi identidad filipina, rindo homenaje al catolicismo.

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Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, Patrona Celestial de Filipinas, ruega por nosotros.

¡Viva la Virgen de Guadalupe! 😇

La Inmaculada Concepción en la Historia de Filipinas

 

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“La Inmaculada de los Venerables”, óleo sobre lienzo por Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1678).

Hoy el mundo cristiano celebra la Fiesta de la Inmaculada Concepción. Es un artículo de fe del Catolicismo, la religión de innumerables personas del mundo hispano. El dicho dogma dice que María fue eligida por el Señor Dios (como anunciado por el Arcángel Gabriel) ser la madre de su único hijo, Jesucristo, el salvador del mundo y la segunda persona del Dios Trino. María no fue alcanzada por el pecado original sino que, desde el primer instante de su concepción, estuvo libre de todo pecado.

¿Sabían que, aunque la Fiesta de la Inmaculada Concepción fue declarada como un dogma Católico Romano el 8 de diciembre de 1954, la devoción a la Inmaculada Concepción ya estaba extendido en España? ¡Y la misma devoción hasta llegó a las Islas Filipinas en el siglo 16!

La Basílica Menor y Catedral Metropolitana de la Inmaculada Concepción, ampliamente conocido como Manila Cathedral o Catedral de Manila, fue consagrada a la Inmaculada Concepción en 1571 (todavía no era una basílica en aquel entonces). Diez días después, cuando la iglesia fue reconstruido, la diócesis hizo Nuestra Señora de la Inmaculada Concepción como su santa patrona.

La fiesta de la Inmaculada Concepción es un Día Santo de Obligación.

Nuestra Señora de la Inmaculada Concepción, santa patrona de Filipinas, ruega por nosotros.

PEPE ALAS

Basílica Menor y Catedral Metropolitana de la Inmaculada Concepción en la ciudad murada de Intramuros.

 

Whatever happened to Filipino dignity?

I don’t post stuff like this, but this is too much. It made my blood really boil!

This shameful video went viral a few days ago. It’s about a Turkish national, later identified to be a certain Yuksel Ibrahim, disrespecting a traffic enforcer along Buendía Avenue in San Pedro Macati (Makati City). For sure, he made a traffic violation, the reason he was flagged down (it was later discovered that he was driving without a license). But he refused to budge, resisted arrest. As can be seen on this video, the Turk even laid his hands on the traffic enforcer (reports say his name is Michael Orcino) and shoved his motorcycle down to the concrete pavement.

It is unthinkable for Filipinos to behave in such a way in other countries, especially in Muslim land. We are very obedient, polite, and law-abiding overseas. Why let foreigners behave like this in our own native land? What’s infuriating about this video is that there are lots of Filipinos around, but they couldn’t put a stop to this imbecilic Turk. Filipinos swallow their dignity and pride in other countries. Why do the same in our own native land?! This is too much!

Yuksel Ibrahim is an Arabic name. He is most probably Muslim. And he’s going for lost in a Catholic country! Could you imagine a Catholic doing the same in a Muslim country?

But the Filipinos seen in this video (including Orcino) are, to my eyes, not true Filipinos. I call them “Bobong Pinóy“. They’re no longer the true Filipinos in the mold of José Rizal, Marcelo del Pilar, Apolinario Mabini, Claro M. Recto, etc. These are the moronic cowards who grew up speaking in Taglish, Anglo-Saxonized (Americanized) to the core, lapsed Catholics who attend only the Novus Ordo (and whenever they feel like it), and who enjoy teleseryes, Pinoy Big Brother, and other TV garbage from sunrise to sunset as if they have become part of their very existence.

A long time ago in Madrid, a hot-tempered Antonio Luna slapped, spat at, and challenged Mir Deas, a Spanish journalist, to a duel when the latter made insults to the former (Mir Deas even mistook Antonio for his brother Juan the painter). And to think that Antonio wasn’t even in Filipinas. A long time ago in Mindanáo, Filipinos (to say “Christian Filipino” during that time was redundant; Filipino was enough) under Governor-General Juan Antonio de Urbiztondo routed pesky Muslim pirates in Joló and other parts (Rizal even wrote a poem about it). Whatever happened to Filipino dignity? Has it gone yellow because of too much acquiescence to both Chinese and US imperialism? Perhaps other countries already noticed this softening of the once mighty Filipino spirit. No wonder they disrespect us. No wonder they ship containers filled with garbage to our ports.

So don’t blame me if I approved of that beating those imperious Aussie cagers got from Gilas Pilipinas several months ago. Don’t blame me if I cheered when Mayor Herbert Bautista slapped an arrogant Chinese drug dealer twice on national TV years ago.

If only I were there in Buendía, I swear, I would have bloodied this Turk’s face and destroyed his car. I would have even cursed at the traffic enforcer for cowardice. I am not a violent person. I do not condone violence. But I cannot for the life of me allow this infuriating scene to happen in front of my eyes. I can never for the life of me allow a Muslim, an agent of شيطان, wreak havoc in a Christian land. No, certainly not in my house.

Porque soy FILIPINO ORGULLOSO, no soy Bobong Pinoy.