We are now 25,000 strong!

“Prize the past | the counterclockwise ticks”
Federico Espino

Good news to all members of the Facebook history group PHILIPPINE HISTORY 101 : Nostalgia: We now have 25,000 members! What a way to end 2019!

On behalf of the group’s founder, Ms. Carmen Floirendo, I would like to thank all members in making this group a huge success! The group also boasts of distinguished names in Filipino History and Culture such as Ambeth Ocampo, Guillermo Gómez Rivera, Gemma Cruz Araneta, Jim Richardson, and Xiao Chua among many others. Even Jaime Fábregas is there! This makes the group very unique and special compared to other FB groups about Filipino History.

Click here to join!

We now look forward to an exciting new decade!

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Image: Diamond Fist.

 

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Rizal’s retraction (full original text)

NSTP 2

Me declaro católico y en esta Religión en que nací y me eduqué quiero vivir y morir.

Me retracto de todo corazón de cuanto en mis palabras, escritos, impresos y conducta ha habido contrario a mi cualidad de hijo de la Iglesia Católica. Creo y profeso cuanto ella enseña y me someto a cuanto ella manda. Abomino de la Masonería, como enemiga que es de la Iglesia, y como Sociedad prohibida por la Iglesia. Puede el Prelado Diocesano, como Autoridad Superior Eclesiástica hacer pública esta manifastación espontánea mía para reparar el escándalo que mis actos hayan podido causar y para que Dios y los hombers me perdonen.

Manila 29 de diciembre de 1896.

José Rizal

Translation:

I declare myself a catholic and in this Religion in which I was born and educated I wish to live and die.

I retract with all my heart whatever in my words, writings, publications and conduct has been contrary to my character as son of the Catholic Church. I believe and I confess whatever she teaches and I submit to whatever she demands. I abominate Masonry, as the enemy which is of the Church, and as a Society prohibited by the Church. The Diocesan Prelate may, as the Superior Ecclesiastical Authority, make public this spontaneous manifestation of mine in order to repair the scandal which my acts may have caused and so that God and people may pardon me.

Manila 29 of December of 1896

–José Rizal–

Rizal’s retraction was signed shortly before his execution. Many years later, his handwriting and signature on it were examined and confirmed to be legitimate by handwriting experts at the National Bureau of Investigation. End of debate.

* E * L * F * I * L * I * P * I * N * I * S * M * O *

Estoy seguro de que ya estás perdonado, tocayo. No es fácil mostrar la humildad de uno. Pues, tu humildad profunda en reconocer tus errores ya es suficiente para que celebremos tu gloria imperecedera. Descansa en paz eterna.

–José Alas–

The Magallanes-Vizcaya connection

One hundred eighty-one years ago today (29 December 1838), Luis Lardizábal y Montoya, a native of Vizcaya, España, was appointed Governor-General of the Capitanía General de Filipinas, the forerunner of today’s Filipinas or Republic of the Philippines. He immediately set to work.

Immediately the following year, Lardizábal sought to strengthen the military. He ordered the increase of a section of grenadiers (soldiers specialized for the throwing of grenades and sometimes assault operations) in addition to two existing ones. He gave some provisions on the residency registration and contributions (taxes, probably) of the Chinese. And realizing the excellent quality of Filipino tobaccos and at the same time their defective manufacturing, measures were taken to prevent counterfeit products as well as its accreditation. It was also during his term when a weekly newspaper titled “Precios Corrientes de Manila” (Manila Current Prices) was published.

Among history conscious Novo Vizcaínos of the Cagayán Valley (Region II), Lardizábal is remembered as the one who established their province of Nueva Vizcaya. In English, the province’s name simply means New Vizcaya. For sure, Lardizábal had wanted to honor his home province in faraway Spain. But it is not generally known that it was also he who requested from the supreme Spanish government in Madrid to have a monument erected at Opón Island (now known as Mactán) to commemorate the discovery of our archipelago by Fernando de Magallanes, an event leading to the establishment of the “Estado Filipino” of the Filipino State many years later, on 24 June 1571.

When Lardizábal made the request, I wonder if he by then already knew that the carrack Victoria, the first ship to successfully circumnavigate the world (and the lone survivor of the five-ship Magallanes expedition), was built in his home province. According to historian Danilo Gerona, Victoria, originally named Santa María, was built in a shipyard in Ondarroa, Vizcaya.

But with the prevailing Hispanophobia in this country, I also wonder: does the National Quincentennial Committee even know about this? Or do they even care? 🤔

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A 1915 photograph of the Magallanes monument which I found at eBay. It’s currently priced at $29.99 or more than ₱1,500.

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Navidad 2019

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Adorazione dei pastori” (óleo sobre madera) por Bronzino.

 

EVANGELIO DE LA MISA
(Lectura del santo Evangelio según San Juan 1:1-18)

En el principio ya existía la Palabra, y la Palabra estaba junto a Dios, y la Palabra era Dios. La Palabra en el principio estaba junto a Dios. Por medio de la Palabra se hizo todo, y sin ella no se hizo nada de lo que se ha hecho. En la Palabra había vida, y la vida era la luz de los hombres. La luz brilla en la tiniebla, y la tiniebla no la recibió. Surgió un hombre enviado por Dios, que se llamaba Juan: éste venía como testigo, para dar testimonio de la luz, para que por él todos vinieran a la fe. No era él la luz, sino testigo de la luz. La Palabra era la luz verdadera, que alumbra a todo hombre. Al mundo vino, y en el mundo estaba; el mundo se hizo por medio de ella, y el mundo no la conoció. Vino a su casa, y los suyos no la recibieron. Pero a cuantos la recibieron, les da poder para ser hijos de Dios, si creen en su nombre. Éstos no han nacido de sangre, ni de amor carnal, ni de amor humano, sino de Dios. Y la Palabra se hizo carne y acampó entre nosotros, y hemos contemplado su gloria: gloria propia del Hijo único del Padre, lleno de gracia y de verdad. Juan da testimonio de él y grita diciendo: «Éste es de quien dije: “El que viene detrás de mí pasa delante de mí, porque existía antes que yo.”» Pues de su plenitud todos hemos recibido, gracia tras gracia. Porque la ley se dio por medio de Moisés, la gracia y la verdad vinieron por medio de Jesucristo. A Dios nadie lo ha visto jamás: Dios Hijo único, que está en el seno del Padre, es quien lo ha dado a conocer.

¡Feliz Navidad a todos! ¡Merry Christmas to all! ¡Maligayang Pascó sa inyóng lahát!

♪ Children’s carols in the air ♫

I’d rather go for Christian Christmas songs rather than secular ones. Secular Christmas songs will only teach you that it is OK to be adulterous (♪ I saw Mommy kissing Santa Claus ♫), will teach your children to be rebellious (♫ Jingle bell, jingle bell, jingle bell ROCK! ♪), will teach you to have fun in a dangerous manner (♪ Oh! what fun it is to ride in a one-horse open sleigh, HEY! ♫), and eventually will lead you to your demise through frostbite (♪ Walking in a winter wonderland ♫). Ho ho ho! 😆😂🎄

Remember, boys and girls. There is only one reason why there is Christmas. And that is why Silent Night wins (flawless victory)!  😉 

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“The Nativity” by Dona Gelsinger.

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Cuarto domingo de Adviento 2019

 

EVANGELIO DE LA MISA
(Lectura del santo Evangelio según San Mateo 1, 18-24)

La generación de Jesucristo fue de esta manera: Su madre, María, estaba desposada con José y, antes de empezar a estar juntos ellos, se encontró encinta por obra del Espíritu Santo. Su marido José, como era justo y no quería ponerla en evidencia, resolvió repudiarla en secreto. Así lo tenía planeado, cuando el Ángel del Señor se le apareció en sueños y le dijo: «José, hijo de David, no temas tomar contigo a María tu mujer porque lo engendrado en ella es del Espíritu Santo. Dará a luz un hijo, y tú le pondrás por nombre Jesús, porque él salvará a su pueblo de sus pecados». Todo esto sucedió para que se cumpliese el oráculo del Señor por medio del profeta: Ved que la virgen concebirá y dará a luz un hijo, y le pondrán por nombre Emmanuel, que traducido significa: «Dios con nosotros». Despertado José del sueño, hizo como el Ángel del Señor le había mandado, y tomó consigo a su mujer.

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PHILIPPINE HISTORY 101 : Nostalgia

I am so elated! I have just been appointed as moderator of the Facebook group PHILIPPINE HISTORY 101 : Nostalgia. It is one of the largest and fastest growing FB groups today in terms of membership and engagement. I just finished an introductory message on the group, and I thought of sharing it here on my blog.

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Good evening everyone!

I am happy to announce that I have just been appointed by Ms. Carmen Floirendo as moderator of PHILIPPINE HISTORY 101 : Nostalgia, one of the largest and fastest Facebook groups today in terms of membership (and engagement) that deals with our country’s HISTORY.

I emphasized the word HISTORY here so that all members will realize the theme of this group: our country’s history, of course. While there is still no description nor set of rules yet for this group (and that is what I plan to work on in the coming weeks with Ms. Floirendo), it doesn’t take rocket science to realize that the name PHILIPPINE HISTORY 101 : Nostalgia should only tackle posts related to our country’s history, particularly those that invoke nostalgia. But general Filipino History topics are welcome.

Having said that, I would like to reiterate to all members to comply with this group’s theme as implied by the name. So please Please PLEASE stop publishing non-history related posts. We will not give warnings anymore, especially since there are thousands of you here. If we see a violator, he/she will be kicked out from the group immediately. With just Ms. Floirendo and myself, it is virtually impossible for the two of us to monitor all of your activities. That is why we need your compliance and cooperation. We are all adults here. You already know what is right or wrong.

Please do not consider this message as some sort of “dictatorship”. All we want is strict compliance to protect the integrity of this group. If you feel that Ms. Floirendo or myself are abusing our powers, feel free to criticize us in a respectful manner. And having mentioned that, may we all respect each and everyone here.

Remember: we are all here to promote our country’s beautiful past. Let us all learn from each other.

Lastly, I would like to thank the mother of PHILIPPINE HISTORY 101 : Nostalgia, Ms. Carmen Floirendo, for giving me this rare opportunity to moderate it with her. It is truly an honor!

Best regards,

José Mario “Pepe” Alas

Join the group now by clicking here!

Benevolent Assimilation?

TODAY IN FILIPINO HISTORY: 21 December 1898 — After successfully invading Filipinas and wresting our islands from Madre España, the United States of América was all set to become a world power. Then US President William McKinley issued his “Benevolent Assimilation” proclamation.

The destruction of the Spanish fleet in the harbor of Manila by the United States naval squadron commanded by Rear-Admiral Dewey, followed by the reduction of the city and the surrender of the Spanish forces, practically effected the conquest of the Philippine Islands and the suspension of the Spanish sovereignty therein. With the signature of the treaty of peace between the United States and Spain by their respective plenipotentiaries at Paris on the 10th instant, and as a result of the victories of American arms, the future control, disposition, and government of the Philippine Islands are ceded to the United States. In the fulfillment of the rights of sovereignity thus acquired and the responsible obligations of government thus assumed, the actual occupation and administration of the entire group of the Philippine Islands becomes immediately necessary, and the military government heretofore maintained by the United States in the city, harbor, and bay of Manila is to be extended with all possible despatch to the whole of the ceded territory.

In performing this duty, the military commander of the United States is enjoined to make known to the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands that in succeeding to the sovereignity of Spain, in severing the former political relations, and in establishing a new political power, the authority of the United States is to be exerted for the securing of the persons and property of the people of the islands and for the confirmation of all their private rights and relations. It will be the duty of the commander of the forces of occupation to announce and proclaim in the most public manner that we come, not as invaders or conquerors, but as friends, to protect the natives in their homes, in their employments, and in their personal and religious rights. All persons who, either by active aid or by honest submission, co-operate with the Government of the United States to give effect to these beneficent purposes will receive the reward of its support and protection. All others will be brought within the lawful rule we have assumed, with firmness if need be, but without severity, so far as possible. Within the absolute domain of military authority, which necessarily is and must remain supreme in the ceded territory until the legislation of the United States shall otherwise provide, the municipal laws of the territory in respect to private rights and property and the repression of crime are to be considered as continuing in force, and to be administered by the ordinary tribunals, so far as practicable. The operations of civil and municipal government are to be performed by such officers as may accept the supremacy of the United States by taking the oath of allegiance, or by officers chosen, as far as practicable, from the inhabitants of the islands. While the control of all the public property and the revenues of the state passes with the cession, and while the use and management of all public means of transportation are necessarily reserved to the authority of the United States, private property, whether belonging to individuals or corporations, is to be respected except for cause duly established. The taxes and duties heretofore payable by the inhabitants to the late government become payable to the authorities of the United States unless it be seen fit to substitute for them other reasonable rates or modes of contribution to the expenses of government, whether general or local. If private property be taken for military use, it shall be paid for when possible in cash, at a fair valuation, and when payment in cash is not practicable, receipts are to be given. All ports and places in the Philippine Islands in the actual possession of the land and naval forces of the United States will be opened to the commerce of all friendly nations. All goods and wares not prohibited for military reasons by due announcement of the military authority will be admitted upon payment of such duties and other charges as shall be in force at the time of their importation. Finally, it should be the earnest wish and paramount aim of the military administration to win the confidence, respect, and affection of the inhabitants of the Philippines by assuring them in every possible way that full measure of individual rights and liberties which is the heritage of free peoples, and by proving to them that the mission of the United States is one of substituting the mild sway of justice and right for arbitrary rule. In the fulfillment of this high mission, supporting the temperate administration of affairs for the greatest good of the governed, there must be sedulously maintained the strong arm of authority, to repress disturbance and to overcome all obstacles to the bestowal of the blessings of good and stable government upon the people of the Philippine Islands under the free flag of the United States.

–President William McKinley–

How touching. But each time I hear the words “benevolent assimilation”, this editorial cartoon always comes to mind…

“Kill Everyone Over Ten” –General Jacob H. Smith–

The cartoon above was published in the New York Journal on 5 May 1902. It depicted the massacre of the people of Balangiga, Sámar Oriental (Eastern Sámar). Children over ten years old were not spared.

I remember one WASP apologist claiming that although there was indeed an order to carry out the massacre, it was not complied with. But whether or not it wasn’t, the fact still remains that there really was an order from the higher-ups.

But that is just Balanguiga. Elsewhere, we read Tomás Mascardo, a Caviteño general who fought against the US invaders, as he described how the benevolent assimilationists carried out their admirable tasks toward Filipinos.

En Manila y provincias, regía con todo su rigor la ley marcial. Se registraban torturas, que eran inconcebibles en un ejército civilizado.

EL TORMENTO DEL AGUA: era de dos clases. Una consistía en maniatar a la persona a quien se trataba de someter al suplicio, después de lo cual se la colocaba horizontalmente boca arriba. Una vez en esta posición, se le introducía un hierro cilíndrico entre las mandíbulas, forzándole así a tener la boca desmesuradamente abierta. Después se vertía gran cantidad de agua por la laringe y fosas nasales hasta matar de asfixia al infeliz paciente u obligarle a hacer cualquier declaración que cuando menos justificara la detención de que había sido objeto.

La otra clase se practicaba de la siguiente manera: fijábase una polea sencilla en un arco levantado sobre un pozo de agua. Se suspendía de ella al atormentado con los pies hacia arrib y se le bajaba rápidamente hasta sumergirlo en el agua durante un tiempo más o menos prolongado según la resistencia del paciente, pasado lo cual se le hacía subir de nuevo para sumergirlo otra vez hasta conseguir los resultados arriba dichos.

EL TORMENTO DE AZOTES: consistía en golpear al presunto culpable con el cañón y la culata del fusil en la cavidad torácica, en el abdómen y en todas las partes más sensibles del cuerpo. Si esto no bastaba para obligarle a admitir la acusación contra él formulada, se le sujetaba a una columna y se le comenzaba a azotar con bejucos espinosos hasta rasgarle las carnes y ver completamente despedazados aquellas, matándole de hermorragia en medio de dolores infernales.

EL TORMENTO DEL SOL: consistía en dedicar ducrante el día a trabajos forzados al supuesto reo en la plaza del cuartel americano, sufriendo, con la cabeza descubierta, los calcinantes y mortales rayos del sol tropical, sin darle una gota de agua ni aun después de las comidas.

Below is my translation.

Martial Law governed Manila and the provinces in all its rigor. The tortures that were recorded were inconceivable in a civilized army.

WATER TORTURE: It was of two kinds. One was to tie the hands of the person who was to be tortured, after which he is placed flat on his back. Once in this position, a cylindrical iron was inserted between his jaws, thus forcing him to have his mouth wide open. A large amount of water was then poured through the larynx and nostrils until the poor recipient either drowned to death or is forced to make any statement that would at least justify the detention he had been subjected to.

The other kind is practiced as follows: a single pulley was fixed on an arc raised over a well. The tormented person was suspended from the arc with his feet up and quickly lowered to submerge him into the water for a more or less prolonged time, according to the victim’s resistance, after which he was raised again only to be submerged once more until the abovementioned statements are retrieved from him.

FLOGGING: Hitting the suspect with the barrel and the butt of the rifle in the chest, abdomen, and all the most sensitive parts of the body. If this was not enough to force him to admit the accusation made against him, he is held down to a column and lashed with thorny vines until his flesh was ripped and shattered, killing him of blood loss while in the midst of hellish pain.

SUN TORTURE: Subjecting the accused to forced labor during the day in the American barracks square. With his head uncovered, he suffers the scorching and deadly rays of the tropical sun, without even receiving a drop of water after meals.

According to McKinley in 1900, after freeing us from Spain, he received some sort of epiphany: that the responsibilities of empire had been thrust upon the United States by “the hand of almighty God.” After spending sleepless nights in the White House and praying for “light and guidance”, it dawned upon him that “that there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them, and by God’s grace do the very best we could do by them, as our fellow-men for whom Christ also died.”

Educate Filipinos? We already have the Universidad de Santo Tomás since 1611; McKinley’s empire was not even a country yet during that time — it was still a haven for colonizers.

Uplift and civilize Filipinos? We already had book culture as early as the 16th century. Slavery was abolished. We were exporting rice, coffee, and hemp to other countries. Our artists bested their European counterparts in competitions. We developed tropical baroque architecture which is now being prized even by heritage advocates overseas. We’ve been taught fine and courteous manners that were not just mimicked but even rivaled those of bejeweled ladies and smart gentlemen of Europe. Our ilustrados were already reading Hugo, Voltaire, Diderot, and all those liberal thinkers of the Enlightenment. So what was there to civilize? Our lingua franca was a major European language! As late as the 1960s, Uncle Sam still had to contend with racist prejudices.

Christianize Filipinos? Haven’t we been hearing of Christ Jesus since 1521? And during those centuries that our forebears were joyously celebrating Noche Buena with their loved ones, what Uncle Sam could only boast of were…

…totem poles. One couldn’t even determine if those dull poles were already existing in 1611.

Ouch. 😆✌️

Vintage photo of Rizal’s ancestral house

This “Then and Now” photo of Rizal’s ancestral house has been circulating lately in social media.

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The topmost photo is false. It is not Rizal’s house, for two reasons. First: if it was indeed Rizal’s house, how come that the huge church of San Juan Bautista is not visible beside it? Instead of a church, a different structure stands. Second reason: I have a photograph of the original house (since the one which stands today is just a reconstruction), and it’s in my copy of Rafael Palma’s 1949 “Biografía de Rizal“, one of the national hero’s earlier biographies. Here it is…

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Photographed straight from the book by my wife Yeyette.

 

Just sharing this so that Filipino netizens will not be duped by #FakeHistory.

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What you should know about Graciano López Jaena

If one is to read Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere in the original Spanish, he would be surprised how the country’s foremost national hero described the infamous Padre Dámaso:

Sin embargo de que sus cabellos empezaban á encanecer, parecía conservarse bien su robusta naturaleza. Sus correctas facciones, su mirada poco tranquilizadora, sus anchas quijadas y hercúleas formas le daban el aspecto de un patricio romano disfrazado, y, sin quererlo, os acordaréis de uno de aquellos tres monjes de que habla Heine en sus Dioses en el destierro…

(My translation: “But while his hair was beginning to gray, his robust nature seemed to be well preserved. His correct features, his quite reassuring look, his wide jaws and herculean forms, gave him the appearance of a Roman patrician in disguise, and, unwittingly, you will remember one of those three monks that Heine speaks of in his ‘Gods in Exile’…”)

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In case you don’t know how Roman patricians looked like (image: Brewminate).

 

So where did popular culture get the idea that the poor Franciscan was a balding, bloated, pot-bellied friar?

Many history buffs agree that today’s visual image of Padre Dámaso was culled from an (insane) story written by an eighteen-year-old Ilongo by the name of Graciano López Jaena who, early in his career as an aspiring político in Madrid, once declared that he was a Spaniard more than a Filipino (no wonder he was wont to prominently feature his mother’s last name; the Spanish way of writing one’s full name is to end it always with the maternal surname).

López Jaena, whose birth anniversary is commemorated today (birthdate: 18 December 1856) in his hometown of Jaro, Iloílo and elsewhere where he is still highly esteemed, wrote a story titled “Fray Botod” which in his native Hiligaynón literally means a big-bellied friar. This is how he described his story’s “protagonist”:

Baja estatura; cara abogatada en forma de disco cual luna llena. Pómulos atomatados. Gruesos labios y pronunciados; ojos chiquititos, picarescos y gatunos; nariz grande, abermellado,* de alas anchas y desplegadas, por eso olfatea á distancia como un perdiguero. Cabello amaizado, corona tabo** con cerquillo. Frente deprimida y arrugada marcanda ceño sombrío y adusto. Abdomen; sobre todo, su abdomen llama la atención por su mostruoso desarrollo, es más promontorio que abdomen, porque termina en punta cerca ombligo; la región pelviana y la pectoral coinciden en el mismo plano perpendicular determinado una curvatura central de la columna vertebral. Añádase á todo esto, un cuello corto sobre donde descansa aquella original fisonomía y tenéis acabado el retrato de cuerpo entero.

(My translation: “Of short stature with a flattened, disc-shaped face like that of a full moon. Stuck cheekbones. Thick and pronounced lips. Tiny eyes, picaresque and feline. Large nose, reddish,* with wide and unfolded wings: that is why from a distance he sniffs like a gun dog. Rich hair whose tabo-shaped** crown has bangs. Depressed and wrinkled forehead marks a gloomy and grim frown. And the abdomen —his abdomen, above all— attracts attention because of its showy development, it is more promontory than the rest because it ends at a point near the navel. The pelvic and pectoral region coincide in the same perpendicular plane with a central curvature of the spine. Add to all this is a short neck on which that original physiognomy rests, and you will have his full-length portrait.”)

*Abermellado is not even Spanish. It is Galician, a language spoken in northwestern Spain. It is a mystery as to how López Jaena got hold of that word. Perhaps at an early age he was already a Hispanophile?
**Tabo is a filipinismo, meaning that it is a Filipino word that has been incorporated into the Spanish language. A tabo pertains to the ubiquitous water dipper.

Take note, he was only eighteen when he wrote this hilarious caricature of a Spanish friar. He was virtually a kid. And his Spanish, although rich in imagery, cannot even be considered literary gold.

One wonders as to how López Jaena was influenced by anticlericalism at such young an age (he joined Freemasonry at a much later time in his life, when he was already 26), but it can be gleaned that opposition to religious authority was already in ferment during his youth. Many (Hispanophobic!) historians will readily point out that this belligerent attitude toward the “repressive” Spanish friars was the starting point of his heroism. Debatable, of course.

Now going back to his political plans… what do you make of this declaration of his to Rizal, in a letter dated 15 October 1891?

Ciertamente, si quiero ser diputado en España, es para satisfacer ambiciones personales, nada más; no tengo la pretensión de dar por mi investidura de diputado, derechos ni libertades á Filípínas, ella tíene que conquístarlos con su sangre, lo mismo que su independencia.

(My translation: “Certainly, if I want to become a deputy in Spain, it is to satisfy personal ambitions, nothing more. For my investiture as deputy, I do not intend to give rights or liberties to Filipinas. She has to conquer them with her blood, as well as her independence.”)

His colleagues, most prominently José Alejandrino among them, described his lifestyle in Spain as rather Bohemian: he was a strange fellow who loved to give impromptu speeches just for the heck of it (many of the things he said were just figments of his fertile imagination), who would rather spend more time in cafés just to while away time rather than write articles with his fellow propagandistas (they literally had to bribe him with spending money just to write). He, too, was perhaps the original “dugyót” (which means a slovenly person) as he rarely took a bath, who preferred eating sardines with his bare hands, then wiping his oily fingers on his seldomly washed clothes.

Curiously enough, Jaena rhymes with the English word hyena which is a carnivore known for its filthy and mangy behavior as a scavenger. Just a thought. 😂

There’s your hero, the one and only Graciano López Hyena! So aside from greeting him a happy birthday today, you might as well thank him too for fighting for your liberty.***

***An example of a sarcastic remark. Anyway, follow me on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.