What makes a hero?

Many years ago, while rummaging through costly books in one popular bookstore, I found for the first time Dr. Onofre Córpuz’s famous work, “The Roots of the Filipino Nation”. I didn’t have money then, so I just leafed through the pages. On page 223 (of volume II), I found a commentary of his about the “Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan“, popularly known as the Katipunan. On that page, Córpuz wrote that this time-honored “revolutionary group” was “the first active embodiment of the Christian Filipino nation”.

During that time, I had just reconverted to the Catholic Church (after a couple of years toying around with godlessness and other “isms”). My zeal back then toward the faith of my forefathers was freshly strong, and so I immediately sensed —with much chagrin— that there was something disturbingly wrong with Dr. Córpuz’s assertion. I asked myself, how could someone like him, a giant in the academe, had written something as incomprehensible as the Katipunan embodying a Christian nation when that group was an offshoot of Freemasonry? As many Dan-Brown-educated kids should know by now, Freemasonry is the ancient enemy of the Church. As a Christian student of history, I was deeply intrigued toward the extent of the late Dr. Córpuz’s knowledge about the role of Freemasonry during those tumultuous final years of our country’s history under Spain. But was Dr. Córpuz really unaware of the Katipunan’s Masonic roots as well as its motives? I find it hard to believe that. Or did he leave that fact out conveniently because he was a Freemason himself, or perhaps its sympathizer? But if he was, wouldn’t it still be ridiculous for a Mason like him to say that a violent group who tortured and chopped off the heads of friars just because they were Spaniards embodied the Christian Filipino nation?

To those who are still unaware, Freemasonry has been condemned numerous times by the Catholic Church. To my knowledge, there had been at least 24 papal pronouncements regarding this matter (perhaps the most famous was Pope Leo XIII’s papal encyclical  “Humanum Genus” which was released in 1884). As one of the best academicians our country ever had, it strikes me as odd as to why Dr. Córpuz had failed to emphasize the Masonic origins of the Katipunan in that controversial conclusion of his. A little research will show that the Katipunan’s third and final Supremo, Andrés Bonifacio (you read that right: he wasn’t the first), joined the Logia Taliba (No. 165) and from there imbibed his radical and anti-friar ideas. Bonifacio also joined Rizal’s Liga Filipina in 1892. The group was in fact a Masonic lodge in the making (or was it already?). These organizations, not to mention their members, were hardly Christian at all, if we are to view them from Catholic lenses.


National Artist Carlos “Botong” Francisco’s famous mural of Andrés Bonifacio leading the Katipunan into battle.

After the failure of the Liga Filipina and the arrest and deportation of Rizal to Dapitan, the campaign for peaceful reforms had hit the glass ceiling. Thus, an agitated and disenchanted Marcelo H. del Pilar, himself a high-ranking Mason and a rabid propagandista who had been on self-exile in Spain for years, wrote to his brother-in-law Deodato Arellano and urged the latter to form a much more radical and violent group to finally end Spain’s reign in Filipinas. Arellano thus gathered other members of the beleaguered Liga to form the Katipunan (yes, it was Arellano, and not Bonifacio, who founded the Katipunan as instigated by del Pilar).

When government forces discovered the existence of the Katipunan in late 1896, what happened next was bloodshed and the senseless killing and torture of innocent Spanish friars and other individuals who went against the Katipuneros’ way. Did ordinary civilians welcome the “revolution” participated in mostly by Tagálogs? No they didn’t. For most Filipinos living far from where the action was, life went on. There was no national sentiment that supported the Katipunan rebellion against Spain (see “One Woman’s Liberating: The Life and Career of Estefanía Aldaba-Lim” by Nick Joaquín).

It should be noted in the preceding paragraph that the Katipunan was discovered by accident. Keep in mind that it was an underground organization. Simply put, the Katipunan was an ILLEGAL ASSOCIATION no matter how hard one tries to paint it with dainty colors of patriotism and love of country. One might say that it had lofty ideals of freedom and nationhood, thus excusing it from illegalities. But so does the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and the Abu Sayyaf who try to picture themselves as the martyrs of their delusional Bangsamoro. Should we consider them heroes too?

Mimicking the Katipunan’s belligerence toward lawful society, Senator Antonio “Sonny” Trillanes IV and his Samahang Magdalo did the same thing twice in the past against the administration of then President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Should we, therefore, erect monuments to Trillanes as well and consider his rebellious friends as the new Katipuneros? After all, they fought corruption and injustice, didn’t they?

Seeing now that the Katipunan was a bastard child of Freemasonry, the ancient enemy of the Christian religion, how in the world did Dr. Córpuz come up with the idea that the Katipunan was the first active embodiment of the Christian Filipino nation? The Katipuneros made incisions on their arms to sign membership papers using their own blood. They swore loyalty to the Katipunan in front of a human skull. They swore to kill even members of their families for the sake of the Katipunan’s secrecy. Where is Christianity in all that?

This is not to say that Bonifacio was an evil man; only God can judge whether he was or not in spite of the many friars he had shamed and ordered tortured and killed, and churches burned and desecrated. Going beyond the rebellion, we will never know much about his character for he was not as chronicled as Rizal. For all we know, Bonifacio could have been a virtuous man. But that is not the point. Whatever personal distinction he may have had was not the reason why we now have several monuments for him, nor was it the reason why we commemorate his birthday every November 30th.

On 16 February 1921, the Philippine Legislature, under the auspices of US Governor-General Francis Burton Harrison, enacted Act No. 2946 making November 30 of each year a legal holiday to commemorate the birth of Bonifacio. The holiday has since been known as Bonifacio Day, ultimately making the Katipunan a Filipino national hero.

But in view of the foregoing Masonic events surrounding Bonifacio and the Katipunan, especially from the lens of a Christian observer, should a Catholic still consider him a hero?

It is, of course, difficult to accept that Bonifacio should be removed from our pantheon of heroes. After all, we’ve been hearing about him even before we started going to school (I still remember clearly how my dear paternal grandmother —may she rest in peace— was teaching me how to recite that “Andrés Bonifacio / hatapang hatáo” mock poem when I was around three years old so that it would evoke in her a hearty laugh!). But isn’t it about time that we all start to think on our own instead of relying on years of spoon-fed artificial food? You will say, of course, that the Katipunan was formed as a reaction toward Spanish tyranny. But what tyranny to be exact? I’ve been hearing about this tyranny all my life yet no one could still point out accurately what exactly it was all about. What’s always been taught to us are hazy and hasty generalizations. Is there tyranny in the towns that Spain created for us? Was Spain tyrannical when it shipped to our country countless items (tomato, calendar, piano, wheat, books, polo, pantalón, chico, bougainvillea, violin, watermelon, guava, printing press, etc.) and concepts (chivalry, palabra de honor, philosophy, law, land ownership, Western art, age/birthday, Christianity, etc) that have made us what we are today — as Filipinos? We adore old mementos from our past (bahay na bató, traditions, etc.) and decry their dwindling number and alarming disappearance. But such mementos were from the hated Spanish period. So why bother saving and conserving them if they all come from such a tyrannical era?

We all miss our grandfathers who used to bring us to Church on Sundays and carry us on their shoulders so that we’d be able to see saints’ processions from right above a thick crowd; we all miss our grandmothers who never tire praying the rosary day and night. All these are vestiges from that tyrannical period. Why bother missing them at all?

Spain virtually created this country. We wouldn’t be having Luzón, Visayas, and Mindanáo today if not for Spain. What kind of tyranny is that? Numerous tribes (the politically correct will tell me it should be called ethnolinguistic instead) such as the Tagálogs, the Visayans, the Bicolanos, etc. were united under one language (Spanish), under one government, under one faith (Roman Catholicism) so as to keep us one, so that we will no longer be at war against each other. We were given schools (escuelas pías, Universidad de Santo Tomás, etc.). Pray, tell, where is the tyranny in that?

This is not to say that all Spanish officials and even friars during the Empire days were all good and just. No, of course not. But that is not the point. The point here is what untold promises did Freemasonry inspire upon Rizal and del Pilar to rebel, and for Bonifacio and his band of Katipuneros to rise against civil society. “For the sake of freedom”, is the usual answer. But what freedom did violence bring? No wonder the late Fidel Castro was both hated and loved by his people. The support for and against him is heavily polarized to this day.

We have had so much distrust toward our government. From Ferdinand Marcos all the way to President Rodrigo Duterte. Shouldn’t we all follow the Katipuneros of old and organize stealth groups to undermine the present government, all for the sake of freedom?

If I will use the hashtag #NotAHero, it would be appropriate to attach it to that Masonically misled man from Tondo whose birthday we methodically commemorate today, because instead of thinking something that would have truly helped and uplifted the lives of the unfortunate Filipino masses of his time —by establishing something such as the Kadiwa Public Market, for instance— Bonifacio brought instead bloodshed which led not only to his own death but also to the downfall of what Spain had strongly forged for more than three centuries.

And if I may add: no, he was not our country’s first president. Don’t even start with me.

So what makes a hero? ¿Mag-rebelde ca lang, bayani ca na caagád? At capág nasa poder ca at nilabanan mo ang isáng rebelión, ¿masamá ca ná?

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Serendipity in ketchup

Yesterday afternoon, I was strolling along María Orosa Street where the Court of Appeals is located. That Ermiteño street was named after a Filipina food technologist and chemist from Taal, Batangas who invented banana ketchup. Little did I know that yesterday was the eve of her birthday. How serendipitous!

I still prefer tomato ketchup, though. 😂✌️


Google honors María Orosa e Ylagan today on her birth anniversary (29 November 1893).

Ayer por la tarde, paseaba por la calle María Orosa donde se encuentra el Tribunal de Apelaciones. Esa calle ermiteña lleva el nombre de una química filipina que es también una tecnóloga de alimentos de Taal, Batangas quien inventó el kétchup de plátano. Poco sabía yo que ayer era la víspera de su cumpleaños. ¡Qué casualidad!

Sin embargo, todavía prefiero el kétchup de tomate. 😂✌️

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Yorme Iskô, ¡mabuhay ca!

Alarmantemente estamos perdiendo gran parte de los recuerdos de nuestro país. Me refiero a nuestro patrimonio, tanto tangible como intangible. Y esto me deprime todos los días. Pero el Señor Alcalde Francisco “Iskô” Domagoso Moreno de Manila me da esperanza. Me inspira a ser un mejor filipino. Me inspira a no renunciar a luchar por la supervivencia de los recuerdos de nuestro país.


We are alarmingly losing much of our country’s memories. I am talking about our heritage, both tangible and intangible. And this depresses me every day. But Manila Mayor Isko Moreno gives me hope. He inspires me to be a better Filipino. He inspires me never to give up fighting for the survival of our country’s memories.

¡MABUHAY CA, YORME ISKÓ MORENO! ¡Nauáy palagui cang pagpaláin at gabayán ng Pañginoóng Dios! 😇

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Hoy en la Historia de Filipinas: el establecimiento de la República Cantonal de Negros

HOY EN LA HISTORIA DE FILIPINAS: 27 de noviembre de 1898 — Los libertadores de la Isla de Negros se reunieron en Bacólod para promulgar una constitución y establecer la República Cantonal de Negros tras la rendición incondicional del pueblo el 6 de noviembre de 1898 por las autoridades españolas a los Negrenses.

Previamente, el 3 de noviembre de 1898, los líderes rebeldes de la Isla de Negros planeaban rebelarse contra las autoridades españolas encabezado por el gobernador político-militar, el Coronel Isidro de Castro. El levantamiento comenzó dos días después, el 5 de noviembre.

Se decía que los revolucionarios encabezados por el General Juan Araneta (del pueblo de Bago) y el General Aniceto Lacson (del pueblo de Talísay) llevaban armas falsas compuestas de rifles tallados en hojas de palma y cañones de esteras de bambú enrolladas pintadas de negro. Utilizaron estas armas falsas para asustar a sus enemigos, y la guerra psicológica funcionó.

Es por eso que los Negrenses celebran la derrota de Negros cada esa fecha, llamándola como “Cinco de Noviembre“.

No hay ninguna descripción de la foto disponible.

La bandera oficial de la revuelta negrense. Esta bandera se cambiaría cuando se estableciera la República Cantonal de Negros.

Por la tarde del 6 de noviembre, el Coronel de Castro y sus tropas gubernamentales (tanto europeas como nativas) entregaron incondicionalmente la ciudad y sus defensas. Firmó también el Acta de Capitulación el mismo día.

Los siguientes fueron elegidos como funcionarios de la nueva república:

Aniceto Lacson Presidente (sólo de Negros Occidental)
Demetrio Larena Presidente (sólo de Negros Oriental)
José Ruiz de Luzuriaga Presidente de la Asamblea Constitucional
Eusebio Luzuriaga Secretario del Tesoro
Simeón Lizares Secretario del Interior
Nicolás Gólez Secretario de las Obras Públicas
Agustín Amenábar Secretario de la Agricultura y Comercio
Juan Araneta Secretario de Guerra
Antonio Ledesma Jayme Secretario de Justicia
Melecio Severino Gobernador Civil
La imagen puede contener: una persona

Señor Don Aniceto Lacson y Ledesma, el presidente de la efímera República Cantonal de Negros.


El 27 del del mismo mes, la Cámara de Diputados se reunió en Bacólod y declaró el establecimiento de la República Cantonal de Negros. La Cámara de Diputados actuó como una Asamblea Constituyente para redactar una constitución. Finalmente, la constitución propuesta de la República Federal de Negros no se implementó. El 1 de enero de 1899, después de la breve insurrección de la Isla de Negros en noviembre del año anterior, la República Federal de Negros fue proclamada como un estado soberano o un cantón con dos provincias.

No hay ninguna descripción de la foto disponible.

La bandera de la República Cantonal de Negros se basa en la bandera del Presidente Aguinaldo.

En efecto, Negros se convirtió en un país aparte. La república también ha reunida la isla que fue separada en dos (Negros Oriental y Negros Occidental) en 1890. Pero el 4 marzo de 1899, los invasores estadounidenses se disolvió la república, y Negros volvió a ser parte de Filipinas.

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A funny encounter with F. Sionil José

Several days ago, historian Guillermo Gómez Rivera informed me that he received an email from Mr. César Quinagan of Solidaridad bookshop who was inquiring about his latest book, “The Filipino State and Other Essays“. Solidaridad was interested in distributing them. Unfortunately, since Señor Gómez has been wheelchair-bound for the past few years, he couldn’t attend to this matter himself anymore. I gladly volunteered to meet up with Mr. Quinagan, if only to help Señor Gómez.

This book of historical essays is now available on Amazon. It will soon be on the shelves of Solidaridad.

But then, at the back of my mind, I had to be cautious in visiting the famous Ermita-based bookshop because of a scathing blogpost that I wrote against the owner last year. Before that, I was friends with F. Sionil José on Facebook. No, I have never met him in person. It just so happened that I found out that he has an FB account years ago. Since he was a close friend of my favorite writer Nick Joaquín, I just thought of clicking on “Add Friend” and was lucky enough to be accepted. That blogpost I wrote earned for me an unfriending. 🤣 But it was to be expected, of course.

Close friends know that I appreciate F. Sionil José’s fiction but not his opinions on Filipino History and other matters. That is why I developed a disliking of him, even if he’s the best friend of Nick. Besides, the two have been known to be at loggerheads against each other. How many times have we been told about the famous story on how Frankie and Nick debated about our country’s Spanish past? Nick would usually say that if not for the Spaniards, Frankie would have been an Igorot. Frankie would then claim in interviews that Nick would always fall silent whenever he replied with this:

“Don’t forget the Spaniards killed Rizal.”

* * * * * * *

Last November 16, a Saturday, I attended an art-history lecture at the National Museum of the Philippines which was curated by my famous comadre Gemma Cruz-Araneta (a great grandniece of Rizal, if I may add). I brought with me a few copies of Señor Gómez’s book to be delivered to Mr. Quinagan afterwards. I tagged my family along (except for my two eldest, Krystal and Mómay, who were already busy with other things).


Juanito, Yeyette, Gemma, and Clarita after the lecture (photo: Jefe).


Thankfully, Jefe, Juanito, and Junífera Clarita are inclined toward the arts. They always enjoy their stay at the National Museum.


After the museum event, Yeyette decided that we just walk all the way to Calle Padre Faura where the National Artist’s bookshop was located. The move surprised me a bit, but it delighted me as well because I really prefer walking through the streets of historic Manila. It was also an opportune time to familiarize our three younger kids to the Manila of our college days (Yeyette and I were classmates in Adamson University, and we used to ramble around the place) as well as to observe some of the newsmaking makeovers that Mayor Isko Moreno did since taking over City Hall last June.


Just passing by our alma mater‘s iconic walkway along Taft Avenue. 😊

We didn’t know what happened, but after several minutes of walking along the (surprisingly clean) sidewalk of Taft Avenue, we suddenly found ourselves facing the vehicular traffic of Quirino Avenue… we missed Padre Faura by several blocks! The new establishments must have disoriented us, or perhaps we have not been to that part of Manila for a long time (besides, I was busy doing Facebook live during our urban jungle trek, hehe). We had to cross Taft and walk all the way back to Faura. It was already dark by that time.

After trudging back, we turned left to Calle Remedios to avoid Taft’s polluted air, then turned right to a quieter Calle Pilar Hidalgo Lim. Yeyette was very annoyed at my miscalculation, so I kept my distance from her by walking several steps ahead. Junífera Clarita got tired with all the walking, so I had to carry her (but she kept on talking and talking and talking). That is why I was soaking wet when we finally reached F. Sionil José’s famous little bookshop. Unfortunately, the sign on the glass door says it was already closed. I didn’t know that they close at six in the evening, and it was almost seven when we got there (I’ve passed by the place numerous times but have never bothered to go inside because of my dislike of the owner). However, we could see a female cashier who was still at her desk, busy with her android. My wife tapped on the door to see if we could still continue our meeting. The young lady was not smiling but she still opened the door for us.


Solidaridad at night.


Yeyette told her of our agenda, but she informed us that César had already left; we missed him by about an hour. However, she took two copies of the book and gave me a calling card. During this brief exchange, a man in his thirties appeared from behind the shelves. I assumed, perhaps, that he was César, but he didn’t look the type who manages a bookshop although he was wearing what seemed to me a guayabera. He grabbed one copy from the lady, went past the shelves, then watched him ascend a stairway at the farthest end of the store.

I asked the unsmiling lady if I had to sign anything before we leave, but she said to just contact César on Monday (so that’s it, guayabera dude was not César). Yeyette then engaged her in small talk. I took that opportunity to rummage around the shelves while shooing away Juanito and Junífera Clarita who were already all over the place.

Moments later, Mr. Guayabera went back to us with some unexpected news: “Aquiát dao po cayó sa taás, causapin dao cayó ni Manong.

Of course I knew who that Manong was. I felt a surge of apprehension, half wanting to leave and meet F. Sionil José at the same time. Really, I was only after César Quinagan, not him. But then, I thought of Señor Gómez’s book. Months before all this, I went to National Bookstore’s main office to inquire about the possibility of them distributing The Filipino State and Señor’s other book, “Quis Ut Deus,” a novel in Spanish. They made me wait for almost a month, only to inform me that they were not interested! Their explanation that Spanish books will not sell was understandable, but to say that they’re not focused on selling books about historical essays at the moment puzzles me up to now. So this, perhaps, was my last chance to have at least The Filipino State to be distributed by a major bookstore. Whether or not I didn’t want to go face to face with the 2001 National Artist for Literature, I really had to.

The problem was my shirt was really wet. I hurriedly went to Yeyette, who by then was fixated with her android, to ask for an extra shirt (I always have an extra with me because I perspire easily due to hyperhydrosis, another bane from childhood). While changing clothes at an enclosed corner near the stairs, my mind was struggling whether or not to tell Manong Frankie my real name. He’s in his nineties, I thought. Perhaps he has forgotten that blogpost of mine? I was trying to assure myself that I was not really that well-known of a troll, that I’m just another unknown basher of his.

After changing in a rush, I hurriedly reached for the stairs. I didn’t want to make Manong Frankie wait; I heard that he is such a character. When I was all set, I saw that Junífera Clarita, my annoying five-year-old baby girl who kept on talking and talking and talking, was already at the stairs! My golly, there was no more time to bid her to stay at the ground floor, lest she made a scene. I whispered to her, while trudging the wooden stairs, to just stay put and behave.

Manong Frankie, wearing his trademark beret, was seated on a wooden bench at the top of the stairs. Far to his right was another elderly lady behind a desk; I immediately recognized her as the wife, Manang Teresita José. The upper floor was not as well lighted compared to the ground floor, but the light coming from Manang Teresita’s desk made it bearable. The upper floor was actually a mezzanine, so the light coming from the first floor also contributed to the lighting.

After the greetings, I was not able to shake his hand because Junífera Clarita was all over the place again. Before I could even scold her, Manong Frankie immediately interrogated me as he bade me sit down in front of him.

“Are you the author of this book?” he said in his booming voice.

“No, sir! I’m just, uh, … an assistant. The author’s assistant,” I said, groping for the right words.

“I see. But do you also write?”

“Yes, sir,” I replied. “Actually, I already have a book under my name. But it’s nothing big, really. It’s a project by our local government, a biography about our city’s local hero. That is why it cannot be sold in bookstores.” I was of course referring to “Captain Remo: The Young Hero“, a book which catapulted me to fame in our apartment building.

We then discussed a few things about the consignment of the book, and of course its author. “You know, I find Guillermo a very radical writer! How is he now?” he asked while holding a copy of The Filipino State. I suddenly remembered that they both know each other personally. I described to him his fellow writer’s condition, then he boasted that at 94, he could still walk around. “I’m turning 95 next month!” I feigned surprise. “I’m older than him by several years and yet I can still walk around. How old is he now?”

I suddenly forgot Señor Gómez’s age, so I just told him his year of birth: 1936. Because I’m bad at math. Humorously, Manong Frankie still made me count. “O, 1936. ¿Eh ‘di ilang taon na iyón?“

My golly. I saw Jefe behind him taking photos of the room. I called out to him. “Jefe, 1936 si Señor. So how old is he now?” I asked while counting nervously with my fingers. I turned my head back to the National Artist. “See? I’m bad at math,” I chuckled. I was irritated at myself as to why at that moment I totally forgot Señor Gómez’s age. And doubly irritating was that Jefe couldn’t do the math too. De tal palo, tal astillo. 😆


I didn’t know that my son Jefe was taking pictures of my impromptu meeting with a living legend.


The small talk ventured to other topics: his life, his writings, and my most favorite topic of all — his best friend Nick Joaquín. And when I told him how much I idolized his friend, it made him all the more joyous.

He then repeated the oft-told story of how he beat Nick in arguments. “He tells me that if not for the Spaniards, I would have remained an Igorot. Ang sagót co namán, eh di más mabuti pa ñgâ, ¡hahaha!” I faked a laughter. “Whenever he loses in a discussion, he takes his handkerchief from his pocket and waves them at me as a sign of surrender!”

I’m familiar with the story, but that is very contrary to Nick’s biography written by his late nephew Antonio “Tony” Joaquín. According to the biography, Nick would blow his nose and shove the snot-filled handkerchief to his Frankie friend. 😆 This funny scene was also discussed in Sari Dalena’s documentary “Dahling Nick”. I almost raised the issue to him, but I thought better.

“There was never a week when he was not here,” he declared proudly. I was waiting for him to tell me that Nick used to sit on the same stool that I was using. I would have embraced it right there and then. But he never did. “Nung namatáy si Nick, napaiyác talagá acó, eh.” I told him that I already saw Dalena’s documentary where a footage of him crying while delivering his eulogy at the Cultural Center of the Philippines was shown. That scene made me tear up, too.

“Actually, sir, I almost met Nick twice.” I saw a shimmer in his almost half-closed eyes, rendered as such due to more than nine decades on earth. “Señor Gómez was to introduce me to him many years ago, but on both occasions they didn’t materialize.” I noticed that both husband and wife were listening intently, so I continued. “And then a few years after that, I found out on the Internet that Nick already died. I was at the office when I read about the sad news. I then left my office cubicle, went to some isolated corner, then cried my heart out.”

Upon hearing that I’m an office worker, he suddenly changed the topic by asking me where I work. I told him that I’m a technical support representative at Mærsk (Manang chimed in that she knows the company), and that I’ve been working the night shift for fifteen years already. I sensed a hint of pity on Manong’s countenance upon hearing my predicament. For a fleeting moment, I remember his writings on social justice, about the toils and challenges of Filipinos belonging to the lower rungs of society. One unforgettable line that really struck a chord in me was from an impoverished character of his from his most famous novel, “The Pretenders”…

I really don’t ask for much. Just a chance to have my wife and children go through life with the least physical pain. That isn’t much to ask, is it? But in this bloody country, when a millionaire has a cold he goes right away to a fancy clinic in New York. And me, I can’t even afford to have my head examined. Hell, there’s justification in the old class struggle — I don’t care what you call it, but does a rich man have more right to live simply because he has more money?

I could relate to this very much. It seems that Sionil José, himself a victim of social injustice, has a soft spot for people like me, people with dreams but had to become wage slaves just so that they could keep their heads (and dreams) above water.

“Where is your office?” he said. I told him that it’s in Pásig, and that I live in faraway San Pedro Tunasán. Daily commuting to and from the office takes up more or less five hours of my life. “What?!” both husband and wife gasped in horror upon hearing this. I’m sure I heard one of them whisper “Dios co“.

“But at least,” I said, trying to reassure them, “I am still able to read a book during the commute, hehe”. The concerned look on Manong’s face was genuine. For sure, a man like him knows that a writer shouldn’t experience the kind of life that I’m enduring. I also shared to them something personal: that I couldn’t read or write well anymore the way I used to, that my attention span has gotten short, that I couldn’t finish a chapter in a book in one sitting, and I attribute all these ills to my night toils.

“I think you should go see a psychiatrist,” Manang said from her desk. I didn’t know if I should laugh or comment back. I just muttered “a psychiatrist” while looking at her with wondering eyes. Her husband then called my attention to another topic.

We talked about many other things: the Spanish language situation in the country (he was delighted to hear that I teach my kids the language and expressed his sadness that it did not become widespread in our country), his celebrated arguments with his friend Nick, and a host of other subjects. But I couldn’t stay the whole night. Manong looked at his wristwatch and politely told me that he and his wife had an appointment. So that’s why both were dressed up. “We are going social climbing!” We all laughed.

Before leaving, I asked if I could have a photo op with him. He was very accommodating. Jefe was already gone, so I rushed downstairs for the cellphone camera. She didn’t want to go up as she was busy with her phone (“kids” these days). I had to ask my son Jefe to take our photo. I rushed back up. Juanito and Junífera Clarita were still all over the mezzanine. My golly! Manong Frankie was just gazing at them while telling something to his wife. Upon seeing me, he then asked me about my kids, my family, and other personal stuff. Before our conversation could turn another half hour, I heard Yeyette finally climbing up the stairs. Seeing Manong Frankie, she tactlessly said: “O, ¿ayos na cayó?” She was aware of last year’s online vitriol that I had with the fictionist, but she didn’t know that I did not tell anything to him that it was I who wrote all that, haha!

The jolly and candid person that she is, Yeyette proceeded on greeting the esteemed couple, asked for their age, showed surprise when she got the answer, then asked for tips on what diet we should take for longevity, much to my embarrassment (no wonder why Junífera Clarita kept on talking and talking and talking: she got it from her Mamá). She didn’t have any idea of Manong Frankie’s literary worth, so I told the latter to excuse her for her forthrightness of character because she doesn’t read books. Manong was laughing heartily. My wife really amused him.

We then had the obligatory picture taking. I was asking for only one, but my wife had wanted more. Goodness gracious…


Me, Junífera Clarita, F. Sionil José, Juanito, and Yeyette. Photo by Jefe.


Manong Frankie and Yeyette.


Manang Teresita and Yeyette.

As I shook his hand, I said to him: “I may not have met Nick in person, but I feel that I have already met him through you.” He looked very, very pleased.

 * * * * * * *

It was hard for me to contain my amusement and excitement as we went downstairs. There I was, planning only to see Solidaridad’s manager, but I ended up chatting with the owner himself who also happens to be one of the country’s greatest literary figures alive today (and a dear friend of my favorite writer). As we were about to leave, the corner of my eye caught a glimpse of “Mass”, the last of Manong Frankie’s five-part Rosales novels. I have an embarrassing confession to make: I have not yet completed my collection of Manong Frankie’s famous Rosales saga until that night. I already have in my possession for years the first four novels (Po-on; Tree; My Brother, My Executioner, and; The Pretenders), but Mass was the only book missing. Whenever I chanced upon it in bookstores, I always didn’t have money. Now was the perfect time, I thought. What better way to cap off my collection than to buy the book from where it was originally published and sold! And perfectly still: I will have it signed by the author himself!

After the unplanned purchase, I excitedly ran upstairs for an autograph, but I saw that the José couple were already descending, assisted by Mr. Guayabera. I just waited for them at the book store’s lobby. They were trudging slowly due to old age.

At Ms. Unsmiling Girl’s desk, F. Sionil José wrote a message on my purchase. It was there when he finally asked for my name.

I froze.


Photo: Yeyette Alas.


“What is your name?” he repeated.

“Ummm… Pepe.”

“Pepe?” He was waiting for me to tell him my last name.

“Umm… Pepe… Alas?”


“Pepe Alas, sir.”

¿Anó?” he said, drawing his right ear to my face.

“You have to speak loudly,” called his wife who was already at the door, looking amused. “He is already hard of hearing”. But I was very close to him. Besides, we didn’t have that aural problem upstairs, even if we were about a meter or two apart from each other. He was able to hear me well during that tête-à-tête.

“It’s Alas, sir. A-L-A-S.”

“Alas?” he asked, almost frowning.

“Yes, sir.” He gazed at me for several seconds. I could have sworn he recognized the name (“Aha! It’s that bastard, trying-hard, sonuvabitch of a blogger who was hoping to go viral at my expense!”). But he proceeded to sign the book, anyway. I must have seen a scowl on his face, but I could be mistaken. He didn’t say anything to me after signing the book. He had another cheerful talk with my wife before we all said our goodbyes (Yeyette later told me that Manong was just inquiring if we are teaching our kids Spanish, she said yes, and it delighted him). They were going somewhere else, to social climb, as what he had told me upstairs.

As my family marched towards Taft, F. Sionil José, with bastón in hand, was still sending us off with a gaze.

* * * * * * *

I read the book immediately upon arriving home. I was amused to learn that the protagonist’s name was also a Pepe. Pepe Samson.

Had I known about this before, I would have told Manong Frankie that Samson was my last name.


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Jones Bridge: a November to remember

My memories of Jones Bridge were always bleak, more so because of its decrepit state than for anything else. I’ve been crossing it since I was a kid because I used to live in nearby Tondo at my mom’s place. I’ve always known the bridge to be dirty and grimy, and that the only best way to cross it was to be inside a vehicle rather than use its very narrow sidewalks. Of course it didn’t always look that way. But that’s how I already saw it growing up, having been born decades after the war. There is much nostalgia over it among heritage advocates, but that’s just about it. There was no intent to bring it back to its early 20th-century glory.

The first and last time that I crossed that bridge together with my wife and kids was five years ago, right after visiting the beleaguered El Hogar Filipino Building. It was towards the end of November. We were inside a jeepney on our way home. The bridge looked slovenly, and street urchins were everywhere. My wife Yeyette’s necklace was almost even snatched by one of them!

Incidentally, exactly a year ago today, I happened to pass by the bridge on foot. While the bridge was newly painted at that time, it still looked drab with a lifeless feel to it.

La imagen puede contener: noche, cielo y exterior

For the past several weeks, Jones Bridge has been on the news because of a massive overhaul. Using a ₱20-million donation from the Filipino-Chinese Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Mayor Isko Moreno is hell-bent of bringing it back to its former glory, as he has been doing to the rest of Manila’s remaining heritage sites.

And now, as I type these words, Yorme Isko (as he is popularly known) is leading the celebration of the bridge’s reinaugural rites and lighting. At last I have a happier November to remember this bridge for!


Photo: Ed Salamat.


Photo: Ed Salamat.


Photo: Ed Salamat.


Photo: Ed Salamat.

La imagen puede contener: 4 personas, personas de pie y exterior

Photo: Ed Salamat.

Photo: Ed Salamat.

La Madre Filipina. Photo: Ed Salamat.

Photo: Ed Salamat.

Photo: Ed Salamat.

Photo: Ed Salamat.

Now, with a new mayor at the helm, things are looking bright for this historic bridge. And not just for this bridge but for the whole city of Manila as well. Thank God he won in the last elections.

¡Enhorabuena, Ciudad de Manila! ¡Muchas gracias, Señor Alcalde Isko Moreno! ¡Pagpaláin po cayó ng Pañginoón! 😇

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Melancolía en varias lenguas

La imagen puede contener: personas sentadas y exterior

Imagen: el Joster.

M e L a N c O l Í a ‘Letras dulces de individualismo’

M e L a N c H o L i A ‘Sweet letters of individuality’

P a G c A m A n I m D í M ‘Matatamís na letra ng individualismo’

M a L i N c O n I a ‘Lettere dolci di individualità’

M é L a N c O l I e ‘Lettres douces d’individualité’

Rizal and school punishment

Rizal as a young student in Biñán was usually whipped and hit with a stick on the palm of his hand by his strict teacher. Of course he didn’t have fond memories about that, but there was no indication at all that he was traumatized by it. He eventually became one of the greatest writers and nationalists we ever had.

He wasn’t the only one who experienced corporal punishment in school. His contemporaries, many of whom became great personalities themselves, went through all that, too. The preceding generations before ours experienced the same as well. Those in public schools probably fared much worse. Heck, I remember one male teacher of mine from sixth grade (he openly practiced favoritism, if I may add) who never failed to humiliate me whenever he felt like doing it. I couldn’t forget how he pulled my hair out of the classroom and dragged me straight to the streets for an incident I could no longer remember. But I didn’t allow his cruel ways to define who I am today.

This is not to say that corporal punishment in school is totally acceptable. However, if we are to compare the general comportment of those generations that experienced this style of discipline to that of ours, which fares the worst in handling society?

This recent viral video from Raffy Tulfo in Action involving an erring student who was sent out from class is virtually nothing compared to what generations of students that came before him had experienced.

I genuinely fear for the next generation that is currently “enjoying” such an unwarranted sense of entitlement.  Raffy Tulfo ought to think about this very hard.

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Today in Filipino History: Catálogo Alfabético de Apellidos

TODAY IN FILIPINO HISTORY: 21 November 1849 — Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa (Conde de Manila) decreed the printing of the “Catálogo Alfabético de Apellidos” to assign and standardize the surnames of Filipinos. This came to be known today as the “Clavería Decree”.

A prevailing myth today is that when you have a Spanish surname, it automatically means that you have a great-great somebody from Spain for an ancestor. While this may be true to a select few families (Fábregas, Gómez, Pertierra, Preysler, Velasco, Ziálcita, etc.), this notion cannot be applied to all Filipinos with Hispanic last names. It should be noted that throughout the three centuries of Spanish rule, very few Spaniards came to the archipelago. In fact, the most number of Spaniards who arrived here during that epoch were in cassock.

Before Spain created Filipinas on 24 June 1571, most of the natives had only one name, usually descriptive of the person. During the rest of the Spanish period preceding 1849, Filipinos started using whatever Spanish surname that suited their fancy. The newly Christianized, for instance, usually chose the names of saints for their last names (Bautista, Dionisio, Pablo, etc.). There were even members of the same family who had different surnames, hence confusing census recording, tax collection, and other forms and means of governance. Surnames back then were not even transmitted from parents to children as adults were free to choose whatever last name they had wanted to use for themselves; José Rizal was a remnant of this practice, although it can be argued that he used it under different circumstances).

Clavería solved this problem by releasing a catalogue of 60,662 Spanish (Alas, Arnáiz, Perez) and native (Balicao, Catacutan, Liwanag) surnames to be distributed to provinces throughout the archipelago in alphabetical order. The list was also expanded with the inclusion of the names of places (Évora, Navarra), plants (Alpay, Laurel), animals (Ganza, León), minerals (Esmeralda), character traits (Inocencio, Reformado), and even Hispanized surnames of Chinese origin (Quezon, Tiongco, Yuson).

The list of family names was distributed accordingly to the alcaldes mayores (provincial governors) who then sent a portion of the list to each parish priest under their provincial jurisdiction. Depending on what he thought was the number of families in each barrio or barangáy, the priest then allocated a part of the list to the “cabeza de barangay” (village chief) who then asked the assistance of the oldest member of each family to choose a surname for the rest of his family members. Upon registration of the chosen surname, the individual involved as well as his direct descendants thereupon would use it as a permanent surname.

Curiously, the catálogo also contained surnames that we might find strange and amusing today: Baboy, Bagong-gahasà, Halimaw, Láing, Otot, Tagay, Tañgá, etc. Seriously, such surnames are in the catalogue! Whoever thought of including such terrible sounding last names in the book must have been drunk or had a terrible sense of humor.

From another viewpoint, the Clavería Decree can also be regarded as a “Spanish embrace” because, by decreeing that the natives should OFFICIALLY adopt Spanish surnames, they were fully accepted as Spanish subjects without racial prejudice.

Did Uncle Sam think of such an act when he colonized us for close to fifty years?

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Hoy en la Historia de Filipinas: el nacimiento de Gregorio del Pilar

HOY EN LA HISTORIA DE FILIPINAS: 14 de noviembre de 1875 — Nace el General Gregorio del Pilar, uno de los generales más jóvenes de la rebelión tagala del Katipunán contra el gobierno español y en la defensa contra los invasores estadounidenses, en el pueblo de Bulacán, Provincia de Bulacán. Publico esta biografía suya en español que apareció por primera vez en el libro de texto Biographies of Filipino Heroes (Textbook for Spanish 4 N) por Josefina O. Ignacio que solía ser profesora de español en el Philippine College of Commerce (ahora conocido como el Polytechnic University of the Philippines). El dicho libro de texto fue publicado y distribuido por Webster School & Office Supplies en Manila en 1976. Ya no está en uso en ninguna escuela hoy, así que pensé en rescatarlo de olvido. Empecé con el cumpleaños de Mabini el año pasado, ahora sigo con el de “General Goyo”.

La imagen puede contener: una persona, de pie, exterior y naturaleza

Era el Más Joven Entre los Héroes
24 de noviembre de 1875 — 2 de diciembre de 1899


Nació el 14 de noviembre de 1875 en la Provincia de Bulacán. Era el menor de los cinco hijos de Don Fernando H. del Pilar y Doña Felipa Sempio. Era sobrino de Marcelo H. del Pilar.

Estudió las primeras letras a su tío Romualdo Sempio, y Mónico Estrella, un maestro privado de su pueblo. Continuó sus estudios en Manila, primero en la escuela de Don Pedro Serrano Laktaw, finalmente en el Ateneo de Manila. Terminó sus estudios de Bachillerato en el Ateneo de Manila el 15 de marzo de 1896.

Por su valentín en la lucha de Cacarón de Sili en que fue herido, Gregorio, mereció el rango de Teniente y por su valor y coraje en el asalto a Paombong en que se hizo famoso, el General Aguinaldo le promovió el rango de Teniente General.

Gozando de la perfecta confianza del General Aguinaldo, Gregorio del Pilar llegó a ser dictador de Bulacán, Nueva Écija, y General del ejército filipino.

Por ser libertador de su provincia natal, y admirado y respetado por sus paisanos que le consideraban su ídolo; y por su guapura, juventud, elegancia en el vestir y educación, pues era el favorito no sólo de sus superiores y súbditos sino también de las mujeres románticas en su tiempo.

Su fé política y militar, el ideal porque lucha porque era la libertad y la alegría de su país. “Yo amo mi país,” decía. “Aceptaré con placer lo que el destino me impondrá a mi por este amor.”

Cuando Antonio Luna fue asesinado en Cabanatúan, Gregorio del Pilar fue nombrado sucesor. Notificado por su hermano mayor de la venida del ejército americano con armas superiore, el contestó: “Como el enemigo es fuerte y numeroso, lucharé hasta el fin. Por lo tanto anuncia a nuestra familia que me consideren muerto. No espero vivir por largo tiempo.”

Su predicción se realizó con armas inferiores, los filipinos iban perdiendo a los americanos. Aguinaldo y su ejército tenían que retirarse. En Gregorio del Pilar cayó la orden de encargarle de la retaguardia. Contaba sólo con unos cuantos soldados para realizar la arriesgada empresa. Como estaban en la parte norte de Luzón, para cogarles era menester de parte de los americanos por pasar Tila o Tirad un lugar de 4.500 pies de altura. Así que Gregorio puso sus soldados en sitio estratégicos alrededor del paso. Mirando por el sitio, el General del Pilar dijo que los americanos sólo podrían tomar posesión del paso por encima de su cuerpo.

En la madrugada del día 2 de diciembre de 1899, los americanos comenzaron su ataque. El General del Pilar defendió el lugar sólo con sesenta (60) soldados al frente de trescientos (300) soldados americanos. Era un combate de dignidad y honor. Después de seis horas de batalla, Gregorio del Pilar cayó muerto a las diez (10:00) de la mañana.

Cuando los vencedores llegaron al sitio encontraron al General del Pilar y cincuenta y dos (52) de sus soldados muertos.

En el día de su muerte, sólo tenía 24 años de edad. De él decían los vencedores americanos: “El más valiente de los generales filipinos.”